There is a good reason at least some observers are concerned about the on-rushing 5G era: uncertain but potentially-big new revenue streams will first require a big level of investment.

“Despite the potential for substantial returns, the business case for the investment required for the deployment of 5G is not yet established,” the report duly notes.

“5G networks will therefore require a step change in investment,” says a United Kingdom government report on 5G.

Also, underscoring the belief that 5G will involve a “network of networks,” the report argues that, “unlike previous generations of mobile telecommunications, it is possible, given the breadth of the potential 5G ecosystem, that the additional investment required in digital infrastructure will not come purely from established network operators.”

As part of the effort to support 5G introduction, the U.K. government is creating a national 5G test bed, initially investing up to £16 million to conduct trials, including testing of networks and apps.