One obvious result of consumer “best effort only” network neutrality rules is the greater attractiveness of managed services. Carrier voice, carrier messaging and linear video subscriptions are examples of managed services, as are business virtual private networks.

That also is true in India, where new network neutrality rules that bar zero rating  exempt data services offered over “closed electronic communication networks.”

Precisely what new CECNs (managed services) might develop is a question, but it seems highly likely that will happen.