In some ways, there are few surprises in a Pew Research Center survey of Internet usage and activities across 32 countries, including the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, Bangladesh, India and China.
Broadly, the survey found higher Internet use by younger people. wealthier people, better educated people, those who own personal computers and smartphones, and those who speak English. The survey also confirms that most people rely on mobile networks for Internet access, not fixed networks, like to send text messages and photos.
Internet access differs substantially across the 32 emerging and developing countries polled, with the lowest rates of internet use in South Asian and sub-Saharan African nations.
The lowest internet rates are in some of the poorest countries surveyed. Just eight percent of Pakistanis and 11 percent of Bangladeshis either say they access the internet at least occasionally or own a smartphone.
Younger people ages 18 to 34 are more likely to report accessing the internet than their older counterparts in every country polled, including differences of more than 15 percentage points in all but three countries available for analysis.
Especially large differences occur in Asia, with age differences of 40 points or more in five countries. For example, in Thailand 83 percent of young people are online, compared with just 27 percent of older Thais.
Education is also associated with Internet usage. In all nations surveyed with a sufficient sample size to analyze, those with a secondary education or higher were more likely to access the internet than those with less than a secondary degree.
Those who own computers, those who can speak or read some English, and those with a secondary education or higher are considerably more likely to use the internet.
In addition to these factors, having a higher income, being male and being employed have a significant, positive impact on internet use, though to a lesser degree.
Age also has a significant influence on internet use, controlling for other demographics. In emerging and developing markets, older people are significantly less likely than their younger counterparts to engage in online activity.
Smartphone ownership is 47 percent in Malaysia. But age plays a huge role. Some 72 percent of those 18 to 34 own a smartphone, while only 27 percent of those 35 and older own a smartphone.
Differences of 30 percentage points or more also exist in China, Thailand and Vietnam.
Smartphone ownership is also higher among the more educated.
Across the 32 countries surveyed, a median of just 19 percent say they have a working landline connection in their home, including as few as one percent in Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda and Bangladesh.
All of those findings are in line with what one would expect.